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Useful advise, tips and business news.


Useful advice, tips and business news.

Mar 1, 2021
Feb 20, 2024


How to File a Confirmation Statement With Companies House

Find out how to file confirmation statements using form CS01 (formerly AR01 annual return) and report changes to your company information

🔑 Key Highlights

  • On 30 June 2016, Companies House introduced the confirmation statements to replace the traditional annual return form AR01, reshaping the regulatory landscape for companies.
  • Its main objective is to “confirm” the company information Companies House holds is correct and current.
  • All UK-registered companies, including dormant and non-trading businesses, must file an annual confirmation statement.

What Is a Confirmation Statement?

It is an annual statutory filing requirement for UK private limited companies and LLPs, which verifies that your business particulars held by Companies House are correct at a specific date. You are required to file your confirmation statement at least once a year.

By complying with the requirement, companies uphold transparency and guarantee the accuracy of corporate information within the public domain.

What Information Is Included in a Confirmation Statement?

Before submitting your confirmation statement, search for your company in the public register to review the information Companies House has on record for your company. Examine the info and identify any incorrect or out of date info.

Based on what you find, prepare and submit your confirmation statement to “confirm” the accuracy of your company details or make any required amendments. 

The company data to assess in the register include —

  • Registered office address;
  • Single Alternative Inspection Location (SAIL);
  • Company officials include the director, secretary, and LLP members;
  • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes (i.e., the company’s principal business activities);
  • People with Significant Control;
  • Exemption from keeping a PSC;
  • Name of each shareholder
  • Shares held by each
  • Statement of Capital which includes -
    • Total number of issued company shares
    • Share class or classes
    • Total number of issued shares of each share class
    • Total nominal value of each share class
    • Aggregate amount unpaid
    • Prescribed particulars of the rights attached to each class of share
    • Currency of the share value
  • Trading status of shares

🛈 Quick Reference

According to the Economic Crime and Corporate Transparency Act, existing companies with a statement date from 5 March 2024 must give a registered email address when they file their next confirmation statement. From 4 March 2024, new companies must provide a registered email address in their application for incorporation.

How to File Your Confirmation Statement With Companies House Online and Make Changes to Your Company Information

To hand in your confirmation statement and update your company details online with Companies House, follow these steps:

  1. Use the Companies House search service to retrieve the current information they have on your company.
  2. Assess if any changes have occurred since the last confirmation statement filing. Even if your company is dormant, not trading, or no changes have occurred, filing remains a mandatory requirement.
  3. You can only report the following changes through your confirmation statement —-
    • SIC codes
    • Shareholder details
    • Statement of capital
    • Trading status of shares
    • Exemption from keeping a PSC register

Please note that the following changes are reported through other Companies House forms

  • Company name;
  • Registered office addresses;
  • Constitutions; 
  • Director or secretary;
  • Changes in the address where statutory registers are kept or
  • PSCs information.

For a more detailed guide, refer to the comprehensive information provided in this GOV.UK guide.


The confirmation statement validates that your company's Companies House records are accurate and current. As a result, every existing company, regardless of its trading status, must confirm this information annually.

When Is My Confirmation Statement Due?

File your confirmation statement within 14 days of 12 months from the date you incorporate your company. After the first year, subsequent statements should be filed every 12 months from the last confirmation statement date, known as the review period. 

For instance, if your company files a confirmation statement on 30 September 2024. Your next review period will start on 1 October 2024 and end on 30 September 2025.


You can submit your confirmation statement as often as you like or as soon as any reportable changes occur in the company. With each filing, a new review period begins from the submission date, and the subsequent deadline is 14 days after each 12-month interval. It's worth noting that the annual fee is required only once per year from the date of incorporation.


What steps should I take if my company has been struck off and my business bank account is frozen due to failing to submit a Confirmation Statement?

When a company no longer trades or fails multiple times to comply with legal requirements, Companies House marks it for Compulsory strike-off to remove it from the official register so that it ceases to exist as a distinct business entity. 

Before starting the strike-off process, Companies House typically issues at least two warning notices. These notices inform directors about the impending strike-off and explain its reasons. 

Several factors can lead to an involuntary strike-off, including —

  • Failure to file confirmation statements;
  • Neglecting to submit accounts;
  • All directors resigning or being removed without replacement;
  • Failture to inform Companies House about a change of registered address; and
  • Ceasing trading without filing for dormancy.

Companies House can commence the compulsory strike-off process if any of the above circumstances arise.

You’ll have at least two months to comply with the requirements mentioned in the warning notice. Seek professional advice or engage Companies House directly for help navigating the situation and exploring possible remedies.


Suppose your company has outstanding debts in the form of unpaid taxes to HMRC. In that case, they may file a winding-up petition seeking the liquidation of your company to pay off its debts. The petition will be advertised in the Gazette and become public knowledge. In response, banks will likely promptly freeze your accounts to mitigate potential liability associated with withdrawals made after the petition's filing.

Upon receiving a compulsory strike-off notice, address the reasons cited by informing Companies House of your operational status and promptly filing any necessary documents.

After compliance, redirect your attention to addressing frozen accounts by following these steps:

  • Settle the winding up petition by clearing any outstanding debt using your private funds.
  • Seek a validation order to authorise specific transactions into and out of your bank account during this period. 
  • Negotiate a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA), including a formal repayment plan. 
  • If necessary, explore the option of closing the company voluntarily through a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation (CVL).

These strategic steps can help navigate the complexities associated with a compulsory strike-off, allowing you to address immediate concerns and potentially find a resolution that aligns with your company's circumstances.

🛈 Quick Reference

Sign up for email reminders from Companies House, and we’ll send email alerts when your confirmation statement is due.

How much does it cost to file a confirmation statement?

It costs £13 to file your confirmation statement online via WebFiling, and £40 to send your Companies House form CS01 by post. While this method involves traditional mail, it remains a valid option for those who prefer or require a non-digital submission.

It's crucial to consider the mode of filing that best suits your preferences and circumstances. Online filing is generally faster and may offer real-time confirmation, while postal submissions may take longer due to the manual processing involved. Ensure you factor in these costs and choose the method that aligns with your company's needs and timeline.

What happens when I forget to file my confirmation statement? 

Even if you have a company secretary or accountant, the director is ultimately responsible for meeting company filing requirements, like confirmation statements. If you miss the filing deadline, there could be consequences such as late filing penalties, legal implications, and potential damage to your company's good standing. It's essential to prioritize these filings to avoid complications and ensure compliance with regulatory obligations.

Sep 10, 2020
Feb 19, 2024


The Difference Between a Voluntary and Compulsory Strike Off

All you need to know about voluntary and compulsory strike off and how to prevent your company from being removed from the companies house register.

🔑 Key Highlights

  • Strike off is the process of removing a company name from the companies register, after which it ceases to exist.
  • There are two types of strike off - voluntary, initiated by the directors of a solvent company and involuntary initiated by Registrar of Companies against a limited liability company that fails to comply with its legal responsibility
  • The consequences of a compulsory strike off can be adverse including fines, personal liability for business obligations and disqualification from acting as a director of a company.

Let's dive into what happens when you receive a notice from Companies House about your company facing a possible strike-off.

What Is a Compulsory Strike Off?

It is a term used to refer to an action taken by Companies House to remove a company from its register so that it is formally dissolved and ceases to exist. Companies flagged for strike-off are usually not actively trading or consistently fail to meet legal and regulatory responsibilities such as filing accounts or confirmation statements. 

How does the compulsory strike off process work?  

The Registrar of Companies will mark a company for compulsory liquidation for the following reasons. 

  • Failing to comply with statutory filing requirements — One of the top reasons the Registrar may forcibly strike off a company is failure to comply with filing requirements such as confirmation statements and accounts. Beyond being struck off companies and its directors may face serious consequences, including potential criminal or personal liability charges for non-compliance.
  • Not actively trading and failing to comply with dormant company requirements — If a company is not actively trading and fails to meet the requirements of a dormant company, it exposes itself to the risk of being struck off. 
  • Absence of a director — When a company's sole director resigns or is removed by a shareholder vote, leaving the company without directors, it makes it eligible for strike off.
  • Failure to notify the Registrar about a change in their registered office address — Neglecting to inform the registrar of a change in your registered office address can cause the company to be struck off. 


The unauthorised Use of a Registered Office Address is strictly prohibited. According to the Companies (Address of Registered Office) Regulations 2016, if any individual or entity submits an RP07 application to change a company's disputed registered office address, the registrar may deem the company unauthorised to use that specific address.

Failure to contest the application or present adequate evidence within 28 days will result in the Registrar changing the business address to the default Companies House address. Continuing to operate with the default address is not permissible (and maybe a basis for being struck-off the register), and immediate action is required to update it to an authorised limited company address.

The default address is published on the public register, and even if a company updates the registered office from the default address, the previous default address will always be publicly available, signalling that the company used an address without permission.

However, if you fulfil all of your legal obligations and have reason to believe that the strike-off notice is unfair, you can send an objection application to Companies House. If your reasons are viable and you provide satisfactory evidence, the process will be discontinued. 

For any company that fulfils any of the above conditions, the Registrar of Companies for England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland may initiate the process of striking them off the register as follows — 

1. Companies House inquiry

The process starts with Companies House sending letters to inquire about the business's current trading status and giving them 14 days to respond. In the absence of a reply, a follow-up letter with identical inquiry is issued, granting an additional 14 days for a response.

2. Issuance of a first gazette notice for compulsory strike

If the company fails to respond to the second letter of inquiry, Companies House issues a notice published in the Gazette in London, Edinburgh, or Belfast—depending on the geographical location of the company’s registered office. 

The primary purpose of this notice is to declare their intention to strike off the company formally. It serves a dual role: providing management with an opportunity to take corrective measures and allowing creditors (including HMRC or former employees owed) the chance to raise objections. 

Remember, the strike-off implies that the company will cease to exist, preventing creditors from pursuing and collecting outstanding payments.


When facing insolvency, it is advisable to explore alternative solutions, including a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation (CVL), to avoid the negative consequences of an involuntary strike-off. In a CVL, a licensed insolvency practitioner takes charge of winding up the company and liquidating its assets for the benefit of creditors. Additionally, they may guide on potential eligibility for director redundancy payments from HMRC and other associated benefits.

3. Second Gazette Notice

If there is no response to the first notice, a second notice is published, providing a final opportunity for any concerned party to correct or object to the closure.

4. Dissolution and Cessation of Business

If there are no objections and the company officials take no action, the company is removed from the register and ceases to exist.

5. Asset Forfeiture

The Crown may claim assets, such as cash, machinery, or buildings, under the 'bona vacantia' (meaning ownerless goods) principle.

Directors may face an investigation into potential misconduct that led to the strike-off. If wrongdoing is found, it could lead to disqualification and even personal liability for company debts.

What Is Voluntary Strike Off?

According to section 1000 of the Companies Act 2006, a voluntary strike off is a process initiated by company directors to remove the company from the register and essentially close it down. It happens when a company is no longer in active business, and directors are happy for the company to close. 

A business that fulfils the following conditions is eligible for voluntary strike off —

  1. During the three months before the application for voluntary strike-off, the company should not have conducted any business transaction.
  2. The company must have kept its name the same within the last three months.
  3. It should be financially stable and not at risk of liquidation.
  4. There should be no outstanding agreements with creditors, e.g., a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA), to avoid unresolved issues hindering the voluntary strike-off.

If the entity meets the above criteria, it must ensure that — 

  • All tax and debt liabilities have been addressed and settled for a clean financial record before closing.
  • The company in question should make its employees redundant and pay their final wages if applicable. HMRC should also be informed that the company is no longer an employer.
  • Business assets should be appropriately distributed among shareholders according to the company's structure and agreements.
  • It filed its final annual accounts and Company Tax Return with HMRC to provide a formal record of the company's last trading period and impending closure. 

In essence, meeting the eligibility criteria for voluntary strike off allows the company to wind down its operations systematically. Ensuring the resolution of financial and employee-related matters, proper asset distribution, and finalising the necessary documents with HMRC contribute to a smooth and legally compliant closure process.

A copy of the strike off application needs to be sent within seven days to the following parties potentially impacted by the liquidation so that they do not object —

  • Members/shareholders
  • Creditors
  • Employees
  • Managers or trustees of any employee pension fund
  • Directors who did not sign the application form

The request for the company's strike-off will be publicised as a notice in the local Gazette if the form has been accurately filed. After two months without objections, the company will officially be off the register. Subsequently, a second notice will be Gazetted to confirm the official closure of the company.

What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary strike off?

Criteria Voluntary Strike Off Involuntary Strike Off


Company directors or shareholders using a DS01 form.

Companies House initiates the process

Reasons for the strike off

The company is solvent. Officials take a strategic decision to cease trading and close the company.

The company has failed to meet legal, financial, or regulatory responsibilities.

Publication notice

The registrar will publish a notice of the proposed striking-off in the relevant Gazette to allow interested parties the opportunity to object.

Companies House publishes the first notice, for objections to be raised or for the company to take remedial action.


The company handles the distribution of assets and settles liabilities before termination.

Company assets, if any, are forfeited to the Crown.


Conditions include no threat of liquidation, not actively trading for the and no recent name change in the last three months.

Failure to meet legal obligations.

Final confirmation Gazette Notice

A final notice is published confirming the closure.

A notice is published by the Registrar confirming the closure.


Once the process is completed, the company will be struck off and cease to exist.

The company is dissolved.


Generally, smoother closure with minimal legal repercussions.

Serious consequences for the company and its directors. For example, being personally liable for company obligations, fines, disqualification from acting as a company director for two to fifteen years, potential investigation for non-compliance, and even custodial sentences.

How can a company avoid compulsory strike off after receiving a request to strike?

If you want to avoid an involuntary strike-off, send an objection application to the Registrar of Companies as soon as possible. To make and submit it, you’ll need - 

  • To sign in to or create a Companies House account;
  • Details of the company facing the strike off; and
  • Evidence to support the objection, for example, invoices showing the company is still trading or owing a debt. These documents must show the company's full name and be at most six months old. 

Furthermore, the company should ensure that all their annual accounts and confirmation statements are filed on time. If you need extra time to get your filings in order, please communicate with Companies House. 

When can creditors object to a compulsory strike-off?

Creditors and concerned parties, including shareholders, can object to a strike-off after the issuance of the first gazette notice. The gazette notice serves as public notification about the Registrar of companies intent to be strike it off the register.

Why would a company compulsorily be struck off the register?

A company is usually subject to involuntary strike-off from the register when it fails to meet statutory requirements, including the timely submission of accounts and confirmation statements. The directors, shareholders, and external creditors like suppliers and HMRC have a two month window to raise objections against the application. If no objections are presented, the company will be struck-off from the register, leading to its dissolution.

What do I do after Getting the Gazette First Notice for Company Strike Off from Companies House?

Once you receive the first notice, you have two to three months to rectify the situation. Here are steps to consider —

  1. Determine the reason for the strike off — To remedy the situation, address the reason behind the notice, which may involve submitting your filings or proving that you are still operational.
  2. Apply for suspension — If you need more time to remedy the reasons behind the strike-off notice, prepare and lodge a suspension application to Companies House.
  3. Address outstanding issues — Clear any fees and taxes and update your filing requirements to stop the process from proceeding to the next step.


Once the registrar initiates an involuntary strike-off, it is highly advisable to seek the assistance of a seasoned professional, such as a solicitor or accountant. Their expertise can prove invaluable in navigating the complexities associated with this procedure, increasing the likelihood of a smoother and more successful outcome for your company.

Can I stop a compulsory striking off notice?    

Yes. You can halt a compulsory striking off notice directed at your company by resolving the underlying issues specified in the notice.

You can also apply to object to a company being struck off using a Companies House account if, for instance, it's indebted to you. Have the company details and documentation demonstrating that the company is still actively trading or has outstanding arrears. 


What if my company is insolvent?

If you want to close your company but it is insolvent, do all you can to avoid a compulsory strike-off, which will have negative consequences. Instead, you can opt for —

  • Creditor’s Voluntary Liquidation (CVL), which involves appointing an insolvency practitioner to liquidate assets and distribute them proportionally to outstanding creditors. 
  • Company Voluntary Agreement between the company and its creditors allows it to continue trading under the supervision of an insolvency practitioner and pay its debts over time. 
  • Pre-packed Administration - The company can continue to trade under a pre-packed administration, which entails negotiating a sale of the company's assets before formally entering administration. By doing so, the business can swiftly transition to new ownership, potentially preserving jobs and ongoing operations.

Compulsory strike off consequences - What if I have assets in my company?

In the event of a compulsory strike-off, company assets will not remain under your control, nor will they be distributed according to the company's plans. These assets will be released to the Crown. It's essential to be aware of this consequence, as it emphasizes the importance of promptly addressing the compulsory strike-off notice and considering alternative options to safeguard your company's assets.

What are my options following a request to strike off?

Suppose a third party has forcibly struck your company off the Companies House register. In that case, you have the following options: if you – 

  • Have no outstanding arrears obligations and all assets have been realised simply allow the process to run its course. 
  • Believe the strike off is unjust, or the details are incorrect, you’ll need to prepare and submit a suspension application and engage the registrar for it to be discontinued. 
  •  What to embrace the strike off but have assets and unpaid obligations, best pursue a voluntary liquidation. 

How can I restore a company to the Companies House register?

Depending on the circumstances, there are two main ways to restore a dissolved company: administrative restoration and restoration by a court order. 

1. Administrative restoration 

You can only apply if the — 

  • Person or entity seeking the restoration was a director or shareholder
  • Company was struck off the register and dissolved by the Registrar of Companies within the last 6 years
  • Company was trading at the time it was dissolved

You apply for administrative restoration by sending to the Registrar a — 

if your company had assets, a waiver letter from Bona Vacantia.

If your application has been successful, your company will be restored as soon as the registrar sends you a confirmation letter.

If your application is refused, you might be able to:

2. Court order restoration 

You may be able to apply for a court order to restore a company if you:

  • Did business with them
  • Was an employee
  • They owed you money at the time of the closure
  • Were responsible for their employee pension fund
  • Have shared or competing interest in land
  • Were a shareholder or director when it was dissolved

To apply for a court order restoration in England and Wales, download and fill Form N208.

For assistance in completing Form N208, access guidance notes from the HM Courts and Tribunals service. 

Next, you’ll need to find the company’s registered office and send the completed form to their nearest bankruptcy county court. Contact the Royal Courts of Justice if you need clarification on the appropriate court.

Include the following with the application:

  1. A £280 court fee (cash, postal order, or cheque made payable to ‘HM Courts and Tribunals Service’)
  2. A witness statement incorporating the supporting details specified in section 4 of the Treasury Solicitor’s Guide to company restoration.

In Scotland:

Apply to the Court of Session if the paid-up capital of the company's shares exceeds £120,000.

For other companies, apply to the local sheriff's court. Subsequently, serve a ‘petition to restore’ on the Registrar of Companies in Scotland and any additional entities as directed by the court.

In Northern Ireland:

Submit an ‘originating summons’ to the Royal Courts of Justice using the address below.

Royal Courts of Justice
Chichester Street

Send a copy to the Registrar of Companies in Northern Ireland and a supportive witness statement.

The Registrar of Companies
Companies House
Second Floor
The Linenhall
32-38 Linenhall Street

Upon acceptance of the claim, the court will issue an order to restore the company. Forward this order to the Registrar of Companies. Once received, the Registrar will proceed with the restoration of the company.

Consequently, take the following steps to pursue outstanding payments:

  • Obtain a ‘judgment’ from the court, specifying the debt amount, interest, and costs.
  • Issue a statutory demand.

File a winding-up petition.

Jan 22, 2024
Feb 15, 2024


Top 21 Best Small Business Apps to Manage Your Daily Operations

Find a comprehensive comparison list of the best business apps in 2024 to manage your business. Everything you need from project and inventory management to HR.

🔑 Key Highlights

  • Small business apps are more than just tools; they're the catalysts that propel an enterprise to new heights.
  • Versatile applications help enhance efficiency, streamline collaboration, and more.
  • When choosing between apps with similar functions, go for the one that addresses multiple challenges, leading to significant improvement in operations.

In this digital age, businesses that leverage cutting-edge applications and technologies enhance their operational efficiency and rise to the top. That's why we carefully curated this compilation of top apps for business owners and professionals looking for solutions to various business needs across domains such as organisational management, financial tracking, customer engagement and more. 

Check out these 21 small business management apps, presented in categories, to help you discover innovative solutions that can revolutionise how you organise, operate, and propel your business towards success.

Best Scheduling Apps for Small Business Owners 

One notable advantage of scheduling apps is their ability to mitigate the impact of external meeting demands on business owners. By allowing individuals to set their availability times, these apps empower prospects, clients, and teams to schedule meetings in alignment with the entrepreneur's predefined availability. 

The applications also help eliminate scheduling conflicts and overlapping appointments by centralising availability information and automating the scheduling process. 


Some key features to look out for in a scheduling application include -

  • Ease of use: Opt for an intuitive and straightforward application for your clients, prospects, and team members to schedule time with you.

  • Calendar Integrations: Your scheduling app should easily integrate into your calendar application and let you view your appointments on both platforms.

  • Notifications: Choose an app that sends you notifications when someone books time with you. It should also have an optional feature for sending reminders to you and your guest days, hours, or minutes before the appointment.

Top scheduling applications for small business entrepreneurs in the UK include —


Via Calendly

Calendly is a scheduling automation platform designed to streamline the process of scheduling, preparing for, and following up on internal and external meetings. Users can create a personalised scheduling link and booking page according to their availability, which they then share with others, allowing them to book a meeting easily at a mutually convenient time. 

It offers the flexibility of setting meeting rules, such as 15-minute or 30-minute increments, enabling participants to optimise their time efficiently during these interactions.


  • Simple and intuitive 
  • Enhances the professional image of the user
  • Has an automatic time zone conversion that removes meeting time confusion for international teams 


  • Limited branding options for scheduling pages 

Platforms: iOS, Android, Chrome and Firefox extension 

Pricing: Offers a free forever plan with the standard plan starting at $10 per monthly seat.

Website: https://calendly.com/ 


Via Appoint.ly

Appoint.ly is a scheduling application for individuals and businesses. Users create a calendar, set their availability and share with clients and coworkers for bookings. It seamlessly integrates with Google Calendar, Microsoft Office, or iCal and automatically syncs appointments while addressing time zone differences. 


  • Free plan available
  • Simple, intuitive and functional interface
  • Minimises confusion due to timezone differences


  • No mobile app
  • Limited functionality compared to other tools

Platforms: Cloud-based 

Pricing: Free basic plan with the pro version starting at $10 per seat per month

Website: https://appoint.ly/ 

Best Project Management Apps

To meet the demands of a dynamic market, companies often rely on multiple teams overseen by either the founder or a designated manager responsible for setting timeframes and objectives. Project management applications are pivotal in facilitating adequate supervision from home, the office, or while on the move. These applications streamline workflows across teams and ensure meticulous attention to detail, mitigating challenges that impede project success.

Techopedia reports a remarkable 92% success rate in meeting project objectives for organisations consistently utilising project admin apps, highlighting the transformative impact of employing the right tools. 

On the other hand, the State of Project Management Report 2021 highlights the most significant challenges in project and portfolio management: benefits management, resource management, and project prioritization. 


Effective project software must tackle the above-mentioned top 3 challenges at a minimum, incorporating key features such as:

  • Resource allocation — Project management tools assist in optimising resource utilisation by enabling managers to allocate resources, including team members, and time to priority projects.

  • Scheduling — Ensures adherence to project timelines and deadlines, monitors progress and allows for timely adjustments when necessary.

  • Reporting — For data-driven decision-making, the application should offer robust reporting capabilities to track and analyse project performance.

With the above in mind, let's dive into the top 2 project management applications for small enterprises in the UK. 


Via Trello

Trello is a user-friendly project management software for organising projects into Kanban boards. At a glance, a manager can tell the main task, the individual handling it, and its status. With a generous free plan that accommodates up to 10 boards and unlimited users, it's a versatile tool accessible to all. Small teams, freelancers, and solo entrepreneurs use Trello for individual assignment planning or comprehensive project workflows.


  • Easy to manage tasks (to-do lists) with an intuitive drag-and-drop system; 
  • Leaders can assign tasks with due dates and role-specific access privileges; 
  • Users can share images and documents from other apps like Google Drive; and
  • It's super versatile, with multiple templates to get new users started. 


  • The process of integrating with third-party plugins is clunky;
  • Some basic features are only available through power-ups; and
  • The free plan has limited features.

Platforms: Web, macOS, Windows, iOS, and Android

Pricing: Offers free plan with paid plan starting at $5 per user per month.

Website: https://trello.com/home


Via FreedCamp

Freedcamp's free version is considered one of the best apps to help organise. It offers unlimited tasks, users, projects, and storage, an excellent choice for SMBs seeking efficient project management software. Their paid plans, including the business and enterprise packages, provide exceptional value compared to rival platforms. The well-crafted native desktop and mobile apps facilitate convenient project administration beyond web browsers and while on the go.


  • It is easy to use and has excellent support;
  • Supports French, German, Croatian, and Russian;
  • Has a time-tracking feature that’s connected to tasks;
  • Inexpensive with the free option including unlimited users, assignments, projects, and storage; and
  • Kanban view allows users to mark tasks as No Progress, In Progress, and Completed.


  • Few native integrations; 
  • Dull and basic user interface; and
  • Complex integration with third-party applications like Outlook.

Platforms: Web, macOS, Windows, Android, and iOS 

Pricing: Free pro package starts at $1.49 monthly per user. 

Website: https://freedcamp.com/

Small Business App for Communication 

Communication is essential for Small and Medium-sized Businesses (SMBs). However, most cost-effective project administration tools are intentionally designed without a built-in communication or team chat feature. Consequently, businesses find it necessary to explore standalone chat or messaging apps offering unlimited chat history, private and public channels, and video and voice calls. Among the popular choices for this purpose are


Via Slack

Slack has become a leading messaging app in business communication. Its intuitive and user-friendly interface sets it apart, providing teams with an efficient platform for streamlining communication. The distinctive feature of Slack lies in its channel organisation system, allowing teams to work with designated spaces for different topics, projects, or teams, fostering a more organised and focused communication environment within the application.


  • Has a fair, free plan; 
  • User-friendly interface;
  • It's quick and easy to send messages to individuals or groups;
  • Customisation options for individual users; and
  • Advanced search functionality.


  • Relatively higher costs for the paid plans;
  • The free plan restricts the number of historical messages accessible, making it susceptible to losing crucial information easily.
  • The free plan limits the number of participants in a huddle to two, affecting team collaboration.

Platforms: Web, macOS, Windows, Linux, Android, and iOS

Pricing: Free plan with the pro plan starting at £5.75 per active user per month paid annually. 

Website: https://slack.com/intl/en-gb/ 


Via Flock

Flock is a messaging and collaboration tool that offers direct and channel messaging, video conferencing, screen and file sharing, and unlimited chat history. Users can create multiple teams and both public and private channels for communication. It is designed for businesses of all sizes and operates on a freemium pricing model, with additional features available in paid plans. The app is known for its fast and reliable communication, making it a popular choice for collaboration and coordination.


  • Ideal for instant messaging;
  • Free mobile app for on-the-go communication;
  • In-built to-do list feature for task assignment and progress monitoring; and
  • Users can send themselves messages for safekeeping or access from other devices.


  • Some users report poor audio and video quality; and
  • Users can delete unread messages without a trace. 

Platforms: Web, Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS and Android phones. 

Pricing: Freemium with the pro plan starting at $4.50 /user/month

Website: https://www.flock.com/

Microsoft Teams 

Via Teams

Microsoft Teams is a unified communication and collaboration platform that seamlessly integrates workplace chat, video meetings, file storage, and application integration. Its user-friendly interface enables easy connections, communication, and collaboration, rendering it a favoured choice for businesses and organisations across different scales.


  • The centralised document storage and communication system helps boost productivity.
  • Easy collaboration with internal and external contacts
  • Enables access to previous meeting notes and recordings
  • Can hold meetings or webinars with up to 10,000 attendees
  • Has a robust free version for personal use. 
  • Integration with the Microsoft ecosystem
  • Comes with end-to-end security


  • Not built for phone use
  • Its online meeting experience isn’t as intuitive as with other apps

Platforms: Web, Windows, MacOS, Android and iOS,

Pricing: Business packages start at £3.30/user/month, paid annually

Website: https://www.microsoft.com/en-au/microsoft-teams/group-chat-software

The Best Business Apps for Time Tracking 

🛈 Information box

Recent research shows that over 80% of an employee's time is spent on low-value tasks. In response to this challenge, a reliable time-tracking application empowers employers to assess staff work habits and their respective contributions to organisational objectives.

With time-tracking tools, companies save time, maximise productivity, identify potential areas of improvement, and monitor performance remotely. For the employee, a time tracking app helps them make the most of their workday and manage distractions.

Some of the best small business apps for time tracking include -

Toggl Track 

Via Toggl

For the web app, toggl track facilitates accurate invoicing by enabling real-time or manual mode tracking of the amount of time spent on an activity, which can be connected to a specific client, project or task. It also has a calendar view that shows weekly time entries in a colour-coded grid format, with which everyone can see the project that dominates an employee's/freelancer's time.  

Toggl has a free forever plan with limited features for up to 5 users and a premium plan for $18 for those who want additional features like fixed fee projects and integrations with third-party applications like Jira or Salesforce. 


  • User-friendly and versatile;
  • Ideal for individuals, freelancers, and teams of any size;
  • Provides in-depth reports and productivity analytics;
  • Promotes employer and employee acceptance with its anti-surveillance feature; and
  • Effortlessly integrates with a variety of third-party project administration and collaboration tools.


  • Few native integrations;
  • Users find it difficult to fix time-tracking mistakes; and
  • The desktop application is cumbersome compared to the Chrome extension and mobile app. 

Platforms: Web, macOS, Windows, iOS, Android

Pricing: Free plan for up to 5 users, starter $ 9 per user per month and $18 for the premium package. 

Website: https://toggl.com/track/


Via Hour Stack

Hour Stack is a premium time management application suitable for individuals, starting at $12 per month and $ 15/member/month for large teams. It has over 15 native integrations, with an additional 1,500 through Zapier. The tool helps teams create projects, set budgets and timelines, schedule tasks, balance workloads across teams, track time, pull weekly and monthly reports and customise according to their unique workflow. 


  • Intuitive interface;
  • Users can plan for an entire week, both tasks and meetings; 
  • The reporting feature enables users to view time estimates vs actual time spent on a project; and
  • Easily integrates with third-party applications like Asana and Google Calendar. 


  • Mobile device applications sometimes don’t work as expected; and
  • The integration with Asana can be unreliable.

Platform: Web

Pricing: No free trial, $12 per month for the personal and $15 for the team package

Website: https://hourstack.com/ 

Best Payroll & Employee Management Apps for Small Business or Remote Teams 

According to the UK Parliament post, fully remote or hybrid arrangements enhance employee wellbeing, but the impact on productivity is uncertain. Yet, business owners report that a remote workforce provides an opportunity to embrace a lean model and tap into a cost-effective offshore talent.

If you are leaning towards going remote or hybrid, here are some of the best HR apps for small ventures — 


Via Deel

Deel is one of the preferred solutions for distributed workforce management applications with free and pay-as-you-go plans starting at $49 per active contract/month and a footprint in over 150 countries. With their employer-on-record product, Deel helps businesses undertake background checks, hire, offer employees localised benefits, and comply with complex local regulatory requirements. 


  • Completely free for contractors and employees;
  • Intuitive and user-friendly interface for ease of use;
  • Streamlined payroll automation feature for efficient processing; and
  • The payment system provides clear tax and compliance requirements guidance, ensuring smooth financial operations. 


  • Customer support may, at times, be unreliable; and
  • No mobile application. 

Platform: Cloud-based

Pricing: Free for HR automation, $49 for contractors and $599 for Employer on Record (EOR)

Website: https://www.deel.com/


Via Motivosity

Motivosity is a business software solution for those seeking to manage employee recognition, motivation and engagement designed to help companies build a positive workplace culture. Through the app, staff members get a sense of community and belonging. With the option to give regular coaching-oriented feedback, teammates feel they have a positive relationship with their boss and managers. 

Its premium plans start at $2, allowing businesses to use it to motivate their workforce as among the strategies underscore success and get insights that help enhance productivity and retention. 


  • Intuitive interface that works like a social media page; and
  • Makes it easy for co-workers to compliment and recognise each other efforts, building a positive company culture.


  • Limited native integration with third-party tools. 

Platform: Cloud-based

Pricing: Starts from $2

Website: https://www.motivosity.com/

  1. Goco
Via Goco

GoCo is a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) business application starting at $5/employee/month that handles onboarding, benefits, time tracking, payroll administration and compliance. 


  • Automates all aspects of hiring - from sourcing to onboarding
  • Handles HR, including benefits and payroll management
  • Ideal for small enterprises and large enterprises with remote teams


  • Difficulty mastering advanced features
  • Available on the web with no mobile application on-the-go access

Platform: Cloud-based

Pricing: Starts from $ 5 per employee per month

Website: https://www.goco.io/

Best Credit Card, Inventory Management, POS System, & Payment Apps for E-commerce 

E-commerce enterprises depend on efficient and secure payment solutions to ensure a seamless shopping experience, significantly contributing to customer satisfaction and trust. Top payment applications for e-commerce companies include — 

PayPal Express Checkout

Via Paypal

PayPal is one of the earliest and most popular online payment solutions. To access the service, you only need to sign up for the express checkout and add it to your website. You can add the checkout through a partner or build your custom integration for your website. Paypal charges 2.90% + £0.30 per transaction. See more details on the UK fees page.

Website: https://www.paypal.com/uk/webapps/mpp/get-started-express-checkout


Via Square

Square is a free stock management and payment processing app for small enterprises. It enables small and medium-sized businesses to accept credit card payments using smartphones or tablets as point-of-sale system registers. It has the following features 

  • Payment acceptance including -
    • Credit and debit cards
    • Apple Pay and Google Pay
    • Digital Gift Cards
    • Card on file for regular customers
    • Custom invoicing
    • Encrypted payments
    • Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) compliance
  • Checkout process customisation
  • Receipts
  • Automated discounts
  • Square analytics for advanced reporting and insights
  • Inventory management with low stock alerts

Besides the features, Square offers POS hardware, which includes the following —

  • Square register with fully integrated till system with point of sale software, payments, and a dedicated customer display.
  • Square stands for those using their iPad as a POS.
  • Square terminal, which connects wirelessly with your POS and accepts all kinds of payments and print receipts.
  • Square reader for contactless payments.


  • Clean and intuitive interface
  • Free basic plan with robust features
  • Wide range of hardware to choose from
  • Real-time sales tracking


  • Cluncky hardware design

Platforms: iOS and Android. 

Pricing: Free for small businesses with the plus plan starting at £49 per month, per location

Website: https://squareup.com/us/en

Best Small Business Apps for Accounting & Invoice Management

The best accounting software for small and medium businesses is affordable and easy to use, recognising that most small and medium business owners are not professional accountants. These tools enable companies to manage their finances and record expenses, profit, and losses. Some of the best tools include —- 


Via Zoho

Unlike Freshbooks, Zoho is a free accounting invoicing software for small business owners, solopreneurs and freelancers. 


  • Simple and intuitive; and
  • Multiple customisation options available.


  • Free version is limited to 1,000 invoices per year.

Platforms: iOS, Android, Windows

Pricing: Offers a free version with enterprise quotations available on request. 

Website: https://www.zoho.com/invoice/


Via  Xero

Xero is tailored for medium-sized businesses that need high-level accounting software for sending invoices, accepting payments, managing contracts, and more. Its pricing starts at £15 to £55 per month. 


  • Cost-effective; 
  • Unlimited users and plans;
  • Enables collaboration with accountants or business advisors;
  • Cloud-based and accessible anywhere with an internet connection;


  • Steep learning curve for new users;
  • It takes a long for customer service teams to respond to people; 

Platforms: Cloud-based

Pricing: £15 for the starter package

Website: https://www.xero.com/uk/accounting-software/

Quickbooks Online

Via Quickbooks

QuickBooks is an online business accounting software specifically crafted to simplify cash flow management. It boasts robust features, including automated expense tracking, efficient invoice creation, integrated payroll services, and insightful financial reporting. 


  • It's easy to use and learn;
  • Integrates well with third-party applications
  • It is cloud-based, enabling users to access real-time data anytime, anywhere;
  • Tools suitable for various business types, including accountants, sole traders and limited companies. 


  • Lacks industry-specific features
  • Experiences regular system crashes
  • Limited to accounting-specific reporting

Platforms: Cloud-based, iOS, Android, iPad, Tablet, MacOS and Windows

Pricing: $29.90/user/month

Website: https://quickbooks.intuit.com/uk/ 

Best Marketing Apps Or CRM Software

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) refers to business development, systems or strategies to promote client acquisition and retention. A comprehensive solution gathers customer information from all the contact points with the business, such as the website, social media, phone line, email, and marketing content. It uses this data to equip the relevant staff with in-depth customer insights such as purchasing history, preferences and prospects' challenges. 


There are three types of CRM software — collaborative, analytical and operational. Analytical collects and assesses client information, which businesses harness for customer behaviour and tailored experiences.

Operational CRM streamlines core business processes, automating sales, marketing, and customer service functions to enhance efficiency and client satisfaction.

Lastly, a collaborative platform focuses on organisational communication and collaboration to provide a seamless customer experience.


Via Nimble

Nimble is primarily considered a collaborative CRM that integrates seamlessly with Google Workspace, Office 365, and multiple third-party applications. 

It emphasises organisational communication and cooperation to improve customer interactions and relationships. Additional features include —

  • Marketing automation;
  • Lead and pipeline management;
  • Task management; and
  • Analytics and dashboards. 


  • Neat, user-friendly interface;
  • Connect on the go with its mobile application;
  • Best CRM for Microsoft Office, including Microsoft 365 apps, Microsoft Teams and Outlook. 


  • Reporting and analytics are not as robust;

Platforms: iOS, Android and Windows

Pricing: $29.90/user/month

Website: https://www.nimble.com/


Via Zendesk

Zendesk is a cloud-based operational CRM that automates customer support ticket management, helping users track, prioritise, personalise and solve email support interactions. Its suite plans start from $49/per month for up to 5 agents. 


  • Workflow automation;
  • Feature-rich interface; and
  • Multi-channel support (chat, email, social media) on a unified platform;
  • Integrates with multiple third-party solutions for comprehensive reporting and analytics. 


  • It’s unintuitive and takes a long time to understand the platform;

Platform: Web

Pricing: Starts at £45 per agent per month. 

Website: https://www.zendesk.co.uk/

Copper Google Workspace CRM

Via Copper

One of the best CRM software for small businesses tailored for G Suite applications, Copper empowers sales teams by effectively managing their leads, contacts, and communication from a unified platform.


  • Cost effective 
  • Simple and easy to use, since the interface is similar to most Google applications
  • Effortlessly extract leads from Gmail, enhancing contact and lead management.
  • Workflow automaton for repetitive tasks
  • track and log email chains, meetings, and files from Gmail using the Chrome extension.


  • May issue unnecessary notifications

Platform: Web, iOS and Android Apps

Pricing: The basic plan starts at $23 monthly per user, paid annually.

Website: https://www.copper.com/

Final Word.

When selecting the best app for your business, choose one that will address the most significant bottleneck. For instance, if you are not making the most out of your existing customer database - you’ll need an analytical CRM to gather insights from client interactions with your business for targeted marketing campaigns and product recommendations. 

Key features you should look out for in a business application should include — 

  • Ease of use — The applications should be intuitive and easy to use. However, you may need software with elaborate features and functionalities. In such cases, consider if the software company offers product walkthroughs, onboarding sessions, and reviews comments from past clients on their customer support culture. 
  • Integrations — You’ll find that many business processes are interdependent. For instance, an order management system may need to communicate with an accounting app. Your email marketing software may require integration with a lead generation tool. Therefore, consider how easily your app of choice connects to third-party applications. 
  • Cost — Determine if the software is the most cost-effective for your business needs. In addition to the monthly charges and price per seat, consider if you’ll have to pay extra to integrate with a non-native application. 
Jul 13, 2020
Feb 15, 2024


Your HMRC UTR Number Explained

Everything you need to know about registering for self assessment, applying for a UTR number for your company, or filing tax returns.

🔑 Key Highlights

  • UTR serves as a unique identifier for businesses and individuals, including sole traders.
  • Once assigned, the number remains valid for the lifetime of the individual or business entity.
  • The number provides access to various online services HM Revenue and Customs offers, enabling taxpayers to manage their accounts, submit tax returns, and stay updated on their financial obligations.

What is a Unique Tax Reference Number?

HMRC issues a unique taxpayer reference comprising ten digits (e.g., 0123456789) to all taxpayers, whether they are limited companies, self-employed individuals, or sole traders.

Personal UTR numbers are issued immediately after a self-employed individual files for self-assessment, while UTR numbers are given directly after incorporation. 

Why do I need a UTR Number?

UTR numbers are unique to the holder and, therefore used to identify a person or business for the purpose of taxation. Limited companies use UTR as a reference number when they are -

  • Filing returns to HMRC;
  • Communicating changes in their accounting period;
  • Informing HMRC about changes in their registered details or company structure or
  • Transitioning from active to dormant company.

Individuals on self-assessment use a UTR for reference when communicating to HMRC in the following instances —

  • File a self-assessment tax return online or via post;
  • Work with accountants or other financial advisors;
  • Determine their tax bill and pre-pay taxes;
  • Claim refunds;
  • Track compliance with tax obligations; and
  • Ensure accurate record-keeping for tax-related matters.

The reference number helps HM Revenue and Customs track earnings, calculate their liability, and monitor the fulfilment of tax obligations. 

How to Register for a UTR Number From HMRC as a Self-Employed Sole Trader

You will be issued a UTR number during self-assessment registration or when forming an LTD company. To enroll for self assessment with HMRC online, you’ll need a Government Gateway ID and password. If you do not have a business account, you can create one if you are -

  • Self-employed as a sole trader
  • A business partner, or 
  • You need to pay for any other reason; for example, you earn income from a rental property. 

🛈 Information box

If you’re self-employed, you’ll need to sign up for UTR and Class 2 National Insurance by filling out a CWF1 online form and posting it. Once you register, you’ll get your UTR number by post in 15 days or 21 if you are abroad.

If you’ve joined a registered partnership, print and post from SA401, or create your Government Gateway credentials and do it online.

For any other reason, you’ll need to provide your full name, postal address, telephone number, and UK national insurance number and indicate why you are registering for self-assessment. 

To avoid fines, remember the deadline for when you must file returns. 

However, if you’ve ever registered but have not yet received your UTR number, contact HMRC directly through the self assessment helpline on 0300 200 3310. They will post it to you, and this takes around ten days. 

Take time to memorise your number, just like your National Insurance number, it’s yours for life.

How to find your UTR number online?

If you’ve forgotten your UTR number, there are several ways to retrieve it.


You can get the number on your personal tax account or the HMRC app, accessible as an iOS App from the App Store or Android App from the Google Play Store using your Government Gateway ID and password to access your details.

Most of your documents from HMRC will show your UTR number; refer to any tax returns letters you receive or forms such as a P60 or P45. Your corporation UTR number will also be printed on your payslip.

See if you can find your UTR number in any of the following resources —

  • Get your registered name and number for a ltd company and request your corporation tax UTR online.
  • Search through your online Self-Assessment account on the HMRC website.
  • Check your “Welcome to Self Assessment letter” (Letter (SA250) sent by HM Revenue & Customs.
  • In your “Corporation Tax Information for New Companies” letter (CT41G) sent by HMRC to the official company address 
  • Any official correspondence, letters, or notices sent to you by HMRC, for instance, notices for tax payments or statements of accounts. 
  • Previous self assessment, company tax returns and other documents. 

However, if you still can’t access previous tax documents (or you want to check your company UTR number), get in touch with HM Revenue & Customs through the self assessment helpline, and they’ll post it to you in 10 working days, or to the registered company address in case of a company utr number.

How do I get a UTR number if I am a Non-Resident?

The law requires non-residents to pay taxes on their UK earnings but not their foreign income. If you are a non-resident, you can apply for UTR through the Government Gateway with the necessary credentials. To get them, you’ll need to have lived in the UK at some point and at least have a National Insurance number (NINO). 

If you do not have NINO, it is possible to register for self-assessment using form SA1, used by those who need to register for UTR number for reasons other than self-employment. As you fill out the PDF, indicate the reason for not providing your NINO. 

Next, you will be asked why you must complete a tax return. Some of your options include if you are - 

  • Receiving annual income from a trust or settlement;
  • Earning an annual income of over £100,000;
  • Getting untaxed income that cannot be collected through your PAYE tax code;
  • Earning Income for Child Benefit purposes of over £50,000, and you or your partner is entitled to receive Child Benefit payments on or after 7 January 2013; and 
  • Required to pay Capital Gains Tax to pay. 

If you have other reasons for completing your returns, you will be required to give the relevant details. 

Once you obtain a UTR number, you can create a Government Gateway account, sign up for HMRC online services, and file self assessment tax returns. 

For a non-resident company or a collective investment vehicle (CIV) that operates in the country or owns UK-based assets such as shares or land, you are liable to pay your company tax using form CT600 corporation tax return. To file your returns, you will need to provide the following details — 

  • Company name (prior names if applicable), registered overseas address, and all contact details.
  • Date of incorporation
  • Name and addresses of directors
  • The date you became liable for company tax 

How do I register for a Company UTR?

To record your company as “active” with HMRC for tax (this must be done within three months of starting any form of business activity or receiving business-related income), you’ll have to provide the following details:

  • Company name and company registration number (CRN);
  • Trading start date (this will determine the start date of your initial corporate tax accounting period);
  • Main address where your business activities are active (this doesn’t have to be your registered office address);
  • Outline your company’s principal activities (your SIC code will be needed here).
  • The date your company accounts will be noted is also known as the “Accounting Reference Date (ARD).” It is the anniversary of the last day of the month of your business formation;
  • Any other information on whether you’ve taken over an existing company/or are part of a group; and 
  • Comprehensive details of all company directors (names, addresses, National Insurance number).

If applicable, any information regarding the appointment of an agent (accountant/tax advisor) who handles your company’s tax-related issues.

How long does it take to get a UTR?

How long it takes to get a UTR depends on your circumstances. 

  • Individuals register for self assessment online and get their UTR number within ten working days. 
  • Non-resident individuals with all the necessary documentation can get their UTR within 21 working days after enrolling for self assessment on the HMRC website. Non-UK resident landlords can register for the Non-resident Landlord (NRL) scheme by calling or writing to HM Revenue and Customs using the following details: 

0300 322 9433

+44 300 322 9433

Open Monday to Friday: 8:30 am to 5 pm and closed on Saturdays, Sundays, and Bank Holidays.

Charities, Savings, and International 1

HM Revenue and Customs

United Kingdom

You do not need to include a street name or PO box when writing to this address.

  • For a limited company registered with Companies House, HMRC will automatically get a notification of their formation and send their UTR number within 14 days of incorporation.
  • Non-resident corporations must register for corporate tax within three months of becoming liable to pay UK corporate tax. If the corporation has a Government Gateway User ID, HMRC will send the code online. If not, the company will need to create an account and allow up to 8 weeks to process the registration and get access codes to your overseas address.

I lost my UTR number; what do I do?

For lost UTR, don’t worry. Simply look through your correspondence with HM Revenue & Customers. If you cannot trace it, you can call HMRC on 0300 200 3310 to ask about your number and +44 161 931 9070 for those outside the UK. HMRC cannot give your UTR number over the phone, but they’ll send it to you by post in 10 working days.

What is the difference between a UTR Number and a Tax Code?

A UTR number and tax code are tax-related numbers in the UK but for different purposes. A unique tax reference is a 10-digit number identifying an entity for taxation matters issued by Her Majesty Revenue and Customs (HMRC) to individuals or companies.

On the other hand, a tax code is used to identify employers, pension providers, and taxpayers within the context of withholding tax that combines numbers and letters with a distinct meaning. The numbers in a tax code represent the tax-free income an employee can earn in a year, while the letter reflects the employee's situation and how it affects the employee. Therefore, tax codes are not static (they change every year) and are not unique to individuals, and there are situations where two or more people with similar tax dynamics can have the same code.

Currently, the most common tax code is 1257L, which means you can earn up to £12,570 before HMRC requires you to pay your income tax. The letter L means the employee is entitled to the standard tax-free personal allowance. Other letters, such as M, mean the employee has received a transfer of 10% of your partner’s Personal Allowance.

What is a tax return?

Taxpayers must file annual returns with HMRC by post or online, declaring their income and any other relevant financial details helpful in calculating tax liability and scheduling payments or requesting refunds in case of an overpayment. The form is called self assessment because each individual is responsible for reporting their income.

What are the Self Assessment deadlines?

To not miss a deadline, you first need to know that tax dates do not go according to calendar years and are filed in arrears (for the previous year’s income). For instance, when submitting forms in 2023, you are reporting based on 2022 income.

The present tax year starts from April 6, 2023, to April 5, 2024, shortened as 2023/2024, and HMRC requires that self assessment returns be filed by October 5, 2024, if it was your first time filing. Midnight October 31, 2024, and January 31, 2025, are the deadlines for filing a paper tax return and online filing, respectively. HMRC also requires that you pay taxes you owe by January 31, 2025.

Who needs to file a self assessment Tax Return?

In the UK, most people pay tax at source in the form of PAYE (Pay as You Earn) and are not required to file for self assessment. However, according to HMRC, you must file a self assessment tax return (known as an SA100) if, during the tax year, you were -

  • Self-employed as a ‘sole trader’ and earned more than £1,000 (before taking off anything you can claim tax relief on);
  • A partner in a business partnership, a minister of religion, or a trustee;
  • A resident or non-resident who earned over £2,500 in terms of an untaxed interest, rental income, commission, etc;
  • Earned over £10,000 before tax in savings and investments or have You have an annual income of £100,000 or more before tax;
  • You have capital gains income received by selling or giving away shares or any other relevant asset;
  • Had a total taxable income of above £100,000; and
  • Had to pay the High Income Child Benefit Charge.

If you need clarification on your situation, please write to us at info@capital-office.co.uk, and we will give you all the information necessary to make a sound decision.

How do I file a Self-Assessment Tax Return Online?

You can file online using form SA100 if you are self-employed and must submit returns for reasons such as receiving rental income.

However, to file returns for a —

  • Partnership use the Partnership Tax Return (SA800);
  • Trust or an estate files through the Tax and Estate Tax Return (SA900);
  • Non-resident using the Residence, remittance basis, etc. (Self Assessment SA109);
  • Report  chargeable events, such as the maturity of a life insurance policy, by filing the electronic flat text file specification (previously called magnetic media specifications) — for UK insurers only or the HMRC chargeable events spreadsheet;
  • Minister of religion by supplementary pages SA102M; and 
  • SA103L for Lloyd's underwriters. 

How do I pay my tax bill?

You can pay your self assessment tax bill by 31 January for taxes owed from the previous year through -

  • Online or telephone banking (Faster Payments);
  • Debit or corporate credit card online;
  • Your bank or building society; 
  • Your online bank account;
  • CHAPS or Bacs

Note that HMRC’s banking address is:

Barclays Bank PLC1
Churchill Place
United Kingdom
E14 5HP

What are the Self-Assessment Tax Bill Deadlines?

Submitting returns is complex; you must get the timing right to avoid penalties. Note taxation forms are not submitted based on calendar years but tax years and are filed in arrears (for the previous year’s income). For instance, if you are filing returns in 2023, you are filing for 2022 income.


The present tax year starts from April 6, 2023, to April 5, 2024, shortened as 2023/2024, and HMRC requires that Self-Assessment returns be filed by October 5, 2024, if it was your first time filing. Midnight October 31 and January 31 (the following year) are the deadlines for filing a paper tax return and online filing, respectively. HMRC also requires that you pay taxes you owe by January 31.

How do you apply for a Company UTR number?

When you set up your LTD company, Companies House automatically sends a notification to HMRC to issue you with a Unique Taxpayer Reference (UTR) number.

What is the difference between a Tax Rebate and a Tax Refund?

Both terms refer to an after-tax refund a taxpayer receives after overpaying their tax invoice. The refund (rebate) refers to the sum you receive from the government when your taxes exceed your actual tax liability.

How do I file my first tax return online?

If this is your first time filing a tax return, begin by enlisting for self assessment. Complete the registration process online on the GOV.UK website. Once registered, you will be assigned a Unique Taxpayer Reference (UTR) number.

Next, gather documents such as P60, P45, and any other relevant tax paperwork. With your documents in hand, determine if you can file online or if you ought to use commercial software and follow the appropriate instructions. The deadline for submitting your tax return is midnight on the 31st of January, following the end of the tax year, and you should always expect to receive a confirmation from HMRC that they have received your return.

Any taxes you owe must be paid by midnight on the 31st of January following the end of the tax year. Various payment methods are available, including online, phone, or postal.

Remember, you can contact HMRC for support if you encounter any questions or require assistance with the tax filing process.

Jul 1, 2014
Feb 15, 2024


How to Change Your Limited Company Registered Office Address

Discover how to change your UK limited company registered office address at Companies House using form AD01 or WebFiling.

🔑 Key Highlights

  • You can change your registered office address anytime throughout the lifetime of your company.
  • With the recently enacted Economic Crime and Corporate Transparency Act, your registered address must be a physical address in the same country where the company is registered, not a PO box address.
  • Statutory letters from government agencies such as the Office of National Statistics, courts, Companies House, and HMRC are sent to the registered office address.

How to Change a Company Address (Online and With Form AD01)

You are responsible for keeping your company information as held by Companies House up to date. But before you proceed to change, ensure that the new address remains within the same part of the UK where your company is registered – England and Wales, Scotland, or Northern Ireland. 

Change your company address online using your WebFiling credentials (email address and password). 

Watch the video below for more information.

A video guide on how to change your director or company address registered with Companies House

You can also change your details by post using form AD01

Form AD01 download
A snapshot of from AD01

You’ll need the following details to fill out the form – 

  • Company name
  • Company registration number
  • Details of the new address
  • Presenter information (details of the person filling out the form)

To avoid penalties, you must update your company information held at Companies House within 14 days of the change. 

Once your change of address becomes effective, Companies House will inform HMRC. 


What is a registered office address? 

Companies House, HMRC, and other government agencies use a registered office address to send official mail. You can use your home or business address, but note that Companies House will no longer accept a P.O. Box.

Also known as a service address, the registered office address is the official address of your Company. As far as mail is concerned, it is the point of contact between your private limited company and the government. 

Before you register your company, be sure to have it in place. 

Can I use my residential address as my company’s registered office address?

Yes. You can use your home address as your registered office address. However, since the address will be publicly available on the Companies House register, you may get unwanted mail and visitors, exposing you to privacy and security challenges. 

Instead, consider working with a virtual office address service like ours and acquire a prestigious central London address that elevates your brand image. 

What is the difference between a trading address and a registered office address?

A trading address is where you are carrying out your business activities. If you have a professional business premise, you can register your trading address as the registered office address. However, you may have to deal with uninvited visitors since this information will be available on the Companies House public register. 

Furthermore, with your landlord's permission, you can provide your home address as your registered address. Yet, this option exposes you to privacy violations and junk mail. 

Do I or a company representative need to be available at the trading address to receive correspondence? 

You do not need to trade from your registered office service location or have any company representative present. However, you need someone at the address to receive, sign, and confirm receipt of the government mail sent to the business. Such an individual can be anybody, including the staff at a virtual office. 

It ensures that official documents, notices, or communications are properly handled and acknowledged by someone at the specified address. By fulfilling this requirement, you demonstrate that you have a reliable point of contact for regulatory or governmental entities, even if the business or company representative is not physically present at the trading address.

What are the key features of your registered address service?

As far as virtual office services are concerned, we are the best. 

A registered office address is a legal requirement during company formation. Further, with the enactment of the Economic Crime and Corporate Transparency Act already established, companies have until March 2024 to switch to a physical address from a P.O. Box. 

🎁 Exclusive Offer

Our prestigious central London registered office address service includes a FREE Company formation. Furthermore, if you take the virtual business address service, you get additional benefits such as access to meeting rooms and mail forwarding service.

Registered office address service

Jul 10, 2014
Feb 15, 2024


Directors Service Address Vs. Registered Office Address Service

Are you seeking to register your company in the UK? Get the latest insights for successful UK company formation with Companies House.

🔑 Key Highlights

  • During company formations, there are two primary addresses that you will need to provide to Companies House: the director's service address and the registered office address.
  • All companies must provide a registered email address under the new Economic Crime and Corporate Transparency Act. Companies House will use this email address to communicate with the company – it will not be available to the public.

As the name suggests, the director service address is provided by the individual directors, while the registered office address represents the official correspondence address of the company.

What Is a director's service address?

It is the address government agencies will use to send statutory correspondence relevant to the role of the director. Official letters from HMRC, Companies House, courts, the Office of National Statistics, and other agencies will be sent to this address.

Every director needs to provide this information during company formation or at the time of appointment. The address can be residential or commercial, but remember that Companies House will display it in the public register. We always recommend using a non-residential address to protect an individual's privacy.


Unlike the registered address, the director's service address can be a full postal address anywhere in the world.

What Is a registered office address?

Statutory letters in the company name will be sent to the registered office address. Please note that starting March 2024, owing to the Economic Crime and Corporate Transparency Act, which became law in October 2023, a registered office address must be a physical address, not a P.O. Box.


You must have a registered office address before starting the company formation process. It must be in the same country your company is registered in; for example, a company registered in Scotland must present a registered office address in Scotland.

In addition to the office address, the Act also requires all companies to provide a registered email address. Companies House will use this email address to communicate with the company, and it will not be available to the public.  

Starting 4 March 2024, newly incorporated companies must provide a registered email address during the incorporation process. For existing companies, the requirement applies when filing their subsequent confirmation statement, beginning from a statement date on or after 5 March 2024

Can I use my home address as my director service address?

Yes. Technically, you can use your home address as your director service address. However, since this information will be publicly available on the Companies House register, it's essential to consider the implications. Using your home address may impact your privacy and expose personal details to the public. 

Opting for a separate director service address, such as the one provided by Your Virtual Office London, ensures a professional image, safeguards your privacy, and complies with regulatory requirements. Our solution allows you to maintain a level of separation between your personal and professional identity.

Can I use a virtual office address as my director's address?

Yes, using a virtual office address as your director's address is common and legal. You get to present a professional image for your business and streamline statutory communication, as the virtual office can handle mail and other communications on your behalf.

🎁 Exclusive Offer

Elevate your business with our prestigious virtual business address in central London, which includes free company formation.

What is the difference between a registered office, business address, and service address?

The terms "registered office," "business address," and "service address" refer to different addresses associated with a company, each serving a distinct purpose. Here's a breakdown of their differences —

Registered Office Address

Also known as the legal correspondence address, it is the official address of a company or LLP used for legal and official correspondence, and with the appropriate permissions, you can use either a residential or non-residential address. Government agencies, regulatory bodies, and the public send statutory letters and official documents to this address. Such correspondence may include—

  • Official documentation regarding changes in company structure or details;
  • Official company documentation from Companies House;
  • Legal updates, notices and summons;
  • Compliance information and reminders;
  • Correspondence from HMRC; OR
  • Important notifications related to the company.

The law requires that companies maintain a registered office address, which must be a physical location in the country where the company is registered.

Business Address

Also known as a trading address, it is the general address associated with the company, used for general business correspondence from customers, clients, and suppliers. It can be a physical location or a virtual office. Unlike the registered address, you are not required to observe the exact legal requirements. There is no legal definition for a business or trading address. 

Service Address

Also known as the director address, it is the official address of company directors, secretaries, and other officers registered with Companies House. It is used for official communication related to the individual's role in the company.

Similar to the registered office address, having a service address is a legal requirement. It helps protect the personal information of limited company officers.

What is the difference between a home and a correspondence address?

The terms "home address" and "correspondence address" refer to different addresses associated with individuals and serve distinct purposes. The home address is the residential address where an individual resides. It is primarily used to identify the location of an individual's residence and is associated with personal matters.

The home address is used for various purposes, including personal mail and official documents, and as a point of contact for personal matters.

On the other hand, a correspondence address is designated by an individual for receiving official correspondence. Individuals may get a correspondence address if they prefer to receive certain types of mail or communications at a location other than their home address.

Feb 14, 2024
Feb 15, 2024


Difference Between Correspondence Address & Residential Address

Looking to register a company? Or appointed to a UK company? Explore the differences between a correspondence address and a residential address

🔑 Key Highlights

  • A company, upon registration, attains a distinct legal identity, necessitating a dedicated correspondence address for directors for legal and official communication.
  • Using a residential address for correspondence or service makes personal information publicly accessible, exposing you to privacy breaches, unsolicited communications, and potential security risks.

In UK company formations, the significance of addresses cannot be overstated. This article explores everything you need to know about a correspondence address, including its importance, benefits, and the process of obtaining one.

What is the legal definition of correspondence address?

Also known as a service address, it is where company officials elect to receive official mail relevant to their role.

Every company official, including —

  • People with significant control
  • Directors
  • Secretary

Are required by law to maintain an address where they’ll receive official communication from agencies like Companies House and HMRC.


During company formation, directors must provide two addresses: a correspondence address and a residential address. The correspondence address will be disclosed publicly, alongside other company details. However, the residential address remains private unless an individual uses it as their correspondence address.

As you consider getting a correspondence address, please note the following —

  • Your physical presence is not required — No company representative must be at the address.
  • Flexible — You are not required to carry out your business or trading activities at the address, providing the flexibility to select a convenient trading place. 
  • Authorised Acknowledgment — Any designated individual can acknowledge receipt of correspondence on behalf of a company official, streamlining communication processes.

Legal Benefits of a Correspondence Address

Having covered the legal definition of an official correspondence address, here is why it is essential.

  1. Your official post address ties you to a legal jurisdiction — In your role as a company official, your designated address determines the applicable laws and regulations that govern your business and personal affairs associated with your official capacity that will be relevant while assessing your conduct as an officer of your company. 
  2. Provides a privacy cover for security purposes — Since it differs from your residential or business address, it provides privacy protection essential for security purposes. Remember, as a limited company director, your name, nationality, occupation, and service address will be available for public consumption. Therefore, to fulfil your legal obligation to be accessible with a prudent need for confidentiality, consider engaging a director address service
  3. Helps officials enhance their credibility by presenting a professional image — A prestigious central London address creates the impression that officials are seasoned professionals and easily accessible. As such, it enhances the perception of trust and reinforces reliability, contributing significantly to the overall credibility of these officials in their professional capacities.

What is a residential address?

A residence is where you live independently or with your family for at least 183 days a year and is often used for official identification and legal purposes. It connects you to a particular jurisdiction and is usually required for various government processes, legal agreements, and identification documents. 

Legal reasons why a residential address is necessary include —

  • Legal residency requirements — A home address complies with legal residency stipulations requiring a minimum residency period for individuals to enjoy certain rights and obligations. 
  • Taxation — Authorities may use your primary place of residence to determine your tax obligations and eligibility for benefits. For example, if you are a UK resident, you are subject to UK tax on worldwide income and gains. 
  • Legal jurisdiction — Your home address determines the laws and regulations governing your life, including contractual obligations, property rights, and family law matters. 
  • Government services — A valid connection to the UK as a resident determines your eligibility for government services such as education, healthcare, and social services. After the government conducts a census, public planning, budget allocation, and infrastructure development are determined mainly by the number of people living in a particular area and their characteristics.

What is the difference between mailing address and a correspondence address?

The difference between mailing and official addresses depends on the context. In business administration, a correspondence address is where company officials can receive official mail, such as legal notices, government letters, and statutory mail. The address establishes a clear channel for official correspondence to reach the appropriate individuals within the company.

🛈 Quick Reference

A mail address is any place where mail is delivered. It can be a residential location, a business office, a post office box, or any designated place capable of receiving mail. Unlike a correspondence address, which is often selected strategically for official purposes, a post address is a more general term that refers to the physical location where mail can be sent and received.

Can I use a virtual address as a correspondence address?

Yes, and here is why. Despite the term 'virtual,' a virtual address is a tangible, real-world street address. It doesn't imply non-existence but reflects its flexibility and ability to manage or access your correspondence through digital platforms. A virtual address operates physically, providing a genuine location for correspondence needs. The service is inclusive of mail forwarding.

How to Change a Correspondence Address With Companies House

You can change a correspondence address with Companies House online or by post. Log into WebFiling with your email address and password for the online option. 

Alternatively, you can amend the correspondence address of your company officials by post using the following forms —  


What is the difference between registered office address and service address?

The main difference between the registered office address and the service address is in their functions and requirements. A registered office address is the official point of contact between the government and the company, while the service address is specific to company officials. Both are required as part of a company formation application with Companies House and are published in the public register. 

What is the difference between a Correspondence Address and a residential Address?

A Correspondence Address is typically designated for receiving official, business-related mail and communication from government agencies.  It serves as a point of contact between the government and the officials of a company. On the other hand, a residential address refers to the place where an individual resides or lives. It is a personal address associated with one's home and is often used for various purposes, including official documentation, personal correspondence, and legal records.


If you use your residential address as your correspondence or service address with Companies House, it's essential to know that this information will be publicly available. Such exposure may open you up to potential privacy concerns and unsolicited communications.

What's the difference between a correspondence address & a permanent address?

As the name suggests, a residential or permanent address is where you live for at least 183 days a year. On the other hand, a correspondence address does not have to be a habitable space; any location that can handle and receive your mail can be a correspondence address. 

Can I use a correspondence address for both personal and business needs?

Yes. You can use a correspondence address for both personal and business needs. It's important to note that the director's address, referred to as the service address, will be publicly available. To maintain privacy, it's advisable not to use your home address. Nonetheless, you can utilise the same address to receive personal and business-related correspondence.

About Our Service

We often encourage businesses and individuals not to perceive an address as a mere logistical detail. It has far-reaching consequences, and it is prudent to sit down with a solicitor to help you select an address that strategically aligns with you from a legal and operational perspective.

🎁 Exclusive Offer

Please note that you can use our Directors Service Address facility as a correspondence address for any of your Company officials

Jan 1, 2023
Feb 15, 2024


How the UK Economy Performed During the 2020 Pandemic

The UK economy is a stalwart in the European region and will remain strong for centuries to come.

The economy of the United Kingdom is a highly developed mixed economy, which is the sixth-largest national economy in the world. It is the second-largest economy in the European Union (EU) and the third-largest in the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The United Kingdom has a strong and diverse economy supported by various industries, including finance, professional and scientific services, manufacturing, and tourism.

The financial services industry, which is centered in London, is a major contributor to the UK economy, as are the manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and automotive industries. The UK is also a major exporter of oil and gas. Despite its strong economic performance, it has faced a number of economic challenges in recent years. These include Brexit, which has had a significant impact on the country's trade and economic relationships, as well as the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led to significant economic disruption and job losses. The UK government has implemented a number of measures to support the economy during these challenging times, including fiscal stimulus, support for businesses, and temporary changes to employment regulations.

The country's economy has been affected by the global economic slowdown, as well as by domestic factors such as rising inflation and declining productivity. Despite these challenges, the UK's economy remains a key player on the global stage, and it is expected to continue to grow and adapt to changing economic conditions in the future.

The lockdown measures put in place to contain the spread of the virus have resulted in widespread job losses and a significant contraction of the economy. In the first quarter of 2020, the UK economy experienced its largest contraction, with GDP falling by 2% compared to the previous quarter. The services sector, which accounts for around 80% of the UK economy, was particularly hard hit, with businesses in the retail, hospitality, and leisure sectors being forced to close or significantly reduce their operations. The UK government has implemented a number of measures to support businesses and protect jobs, including the suspension of workers, which has helped to prevent widespread unemployment. However, the long-term economic impact of the pandemic is still uncertain, and it is likely that the UK will continue to face significant economic challenges in the coming years. Even though the UK has implemented measures such as lockdowns and social distancing restrictions to try to slow the spread of the virus, these measures have also had a negative impact on the economy.

The government implemented various measures to try to support the economy, including loans, grants for businesses, and increased welfare payments but the result of a pandemic on the economy is still uncertain and will depend on the success of efforts to control the virus and stimulate economic recovery so the government has outlined a roadmap for easing lockdown restrictions, but it remains to be seen how this will impact the economy.

The UK economy experienced its worst recession on record, with GDP falling by 9.9%. The country has also seen high levels of unemployment, with the unemployment rate rising to 5.1% in the third quarter of 2020.

There is a range of measures that governments and individuals can take to help mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. These can be grouped into three main categories: public health measures, economic measures, and social measures.

Public health measures:

• Implementing and enforcing measures such as social distancing, mask-wearing, and quarantine to reduce the spread of the virus

• Testing and tracing to identify and isolate cases of the virus

• Vaccinating the population to reduce the number of cases and deaths from the virus

Economic measures:

• Providing financial support to individuals and businesses affected by the pandemic, such as through furlough schemes, business grants, and loans

• Implementing measures to stabilize financial markets and prevent a financial crisis

Social measures:

• Providing support to vulnerable individuals, such as the elderly or those with underlying health conditions

• Implementing measures to reduce the social and economic impact of the pandemic, such as through remote working or online education

Fast forward to today, the UK has demonstrated resilience in the face of the pandemic in a number of ways. One factor contributing to the UK's resilience has been the strong response from the government and central bank. The government has implemented a range of measures to support businesses and individuals affected by the pandemic, The Bank of England has also taken steps to support the economy, including cutting interest rates and providing additional funding to banks.

Another factor contributing to the UK's resilience has been the adaptability and strength of its businesses. Many businesses have been able to pivot and adapt to the changing circumstances brought about by the pandemic, such as moving to online sales or offering delivery services.

The UK has also benefited from its strong healthcare system and scientific community, which have played a key role in responding to the pandemic. The country has a well-established infrastructure for public health and research and has been at the forefront of efforts to develop and distribute vaccines.

Overall, while the pandemic has had a significant impact on the UK, it has shown resilience in the face of challenges through the actions of its government, businesses, and scientific community. It is difficult to draw a definitive conclusion about the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK economy at this time. The pandemic has had a severe impact on many sectors of the economy, leading to a recession in 2020 and a rise in unemployment. However, the government has implemented a range of measures to support businesses and individuals during the pandemic, and it is likely that some of the changes brought about by the pandemic, such as the shift to remote working, will have lasting effects.

Looking ahead, the UK economy is expected to continue to recover in the coming years, although the pace of recovery is uncertain and will depend on the evolution of the pandemic and the success of vaccination efforts. It is also expected that the economic recovery will be uneven, with some sectors recovering faster than others.

Jan 15, 2023
Feb 15, 2024


UK’s 2023 Corporate Tax Rate: What’s New, What Remains, and What Should You Do About It?

Corporate tax is a special interest to the UK government and its economy, because it is what drives the country's GDP.

As a citizen of a country, it is one's responsibility to pay taxes. One of the most widely discussed tax topics as the New Year began was the UK government's plan to raise the corporate tax rate from 19% to 25% on April 20, 2023.What changes will this new corporation tax rate cause? And what can you do about it?

Table of Contents

• Corporate Tax

• Why All This Changes in Corporate Tax?

• Tax Specializations

• Final Thoughts

Corporate Tax

But first, what exactly is corporate tax?

According to Britannica, corporate tax is a tax levied on a corporation's net profits. The definition may be simple, but its concept might be confusing for some due to the complexity of this new tax policy. So, let's try to make it easier to understand!

Businesses sell goods and services in exchange for money, and the sales they make less their business cost will be the profit. With the profits of the company or corporation, the government can take the established percentage as a corporate tax. Resident companies in the UK have to pay corporate tax on their worldwide profits. Non-resident companies, on the other hand, are subject to UK corporation tax on the trading profits attributable to UK permanent establishments. Limited companies—a form of corporate structure where the firm is legally separate from its shareholders and managers—associated with trading profits, investments, and asset selling such as land, properties, and shares for chargeable gains have to pay corporate taxes as well, while sole traders and partnerships have to file a tax return and deduct income tax return on their profit.

Why All This Changes in Corporate Tax?

Why did the UK government change the corporate tax rate for 2023? It is because of the status of the economy during the past years, caused mainly by the pandemic. The government sees this as an opportunity to pay the lost revenues and expenses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, the UK's new corporate tax rate is just aligned with the corporate tax rate worldwide.

Here's the catch, though. Not everyone has to pay a 25% corporate tax. Beginning April 1, 2023, there will be no single corporation tax rate for non-ring-fenced profits, according to uk.gov. In addition to this, the government declared that the Corporation Tax main rate for non-ring-fenced profits would rise to 25% for profits over £250,000 in the Spring Budget of 2021. Fortunately, the corporate tax rate will remain at 19% for small businesses with profits of $50,000 or less.

What about those whose profits are between £50,000 and £250,000? In the article published by Wellers, the corporate tax for those in the marginal rate will be 26.5% by 2023/2024.

Ring-fenced companies, which profit from oil extraction and UK rights, have different corporate tax rates than other companies. The following shows the corporate tax policies for these types of companies:

• The corporate tax rate for small ring-fenced profits rate or those companies with profits under £50,000 is 19%.

• The corporate tax rate for main ring-fenced profits rate or those companies with profits over £250,000 is 30%.

• Marginal relief for ring fence companies with profits between £300,000 and £1.5 million will be available to claim for periods up to 31 March 2023 while marginal relief is available for companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000 from April 1, 2023.

Ring-fenced companies are not the only ones whose corporation tax rate is different from others. Other regimes have special corporation tax due to the size of the business, transfer pricing, R&D credits, and some targeted anti-avoidance rules, which will result in additional compliance and reporting requirements. As given by the Worldwide Tax Summaries, the following are the special corporation tax regimes:

1. Oil and gas company regime (ring-fenced companies)

2. Life insurance company regime

3. Tonnage tax regime

4. Banking sector

5. Real estate investment trust (REIT) regime

6. Qualifying asset holding company (QAHC) regime

Tax Specializations

Each regime has a distinct tax specialization. For instance, life insurance companies are subject to a unique tax system that has various rates for corporate taxes as well as unique guidelines for estimating or calculating their profits. On the other hand, the Tonnage Tax uses the net tonnage of active ships as a substitute measurement to calculate business tax gains. The Tonnage Tax profit replaces the chargeable gains/losses on Tonnage Tax assets as well as the tax-adjusted profit/loss on a shipping firm and some related operations. Having said that, any additional profits are subject to the standard corporate tax system.

Similarly, businesses in the banking industry must pay an extra 8% tax on income beyond GBP 25 million.

While QAHCs are permitted a stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax (SDRT) exemption on the repurchase by a QAHC of share and loan capital, as well as the ability to redeem, repay, or repurchase its share through the capital treatment of payments in the hands of investors, profits from the UK REIT's "residual business," or activities other than renting out properties, are subject to corporation tax in the usual manner.

Due to the decision to change the corporate tax rate of the UK, Diverted Profits Tax (DPT), a part of the United Kingdom's response to the shift in the tax environment, is said to rise to 31% starting on or after April 1, 2023.

With no mention of reversal or change, it looks like the new 25% corporate tax rate is going to go ahead, so people need to know how to register for corporation tax and responsibility. To register for corporation tax when starting up a limited company, you need to go through the HM Revenue and Customs section of GOV.UK. You can now fill up the needed information. Corporation tax must be paid before filing the company tax return, which means that the deadline for payment depends on your corporation tax accounting period. Failure to settle the bill by the deadline dates can lead to penalties.

Apart from this, you may be able to lower your corporation tax bill by making use of strategies like the "Annual Investment Allowance," "The Patent Box Tax Regime," R&D tax relief, allowable business expenses, employee share scheme, and many other ways which you may learn about here.

Final Thoughts

There will be several changes that this new corporate tax rate may bring, whether boosting federal revenues or causing negative impacts on certain businesses. However, those who are knowledgeable and can greatly adapt to these changes can withstand whatever the effects will be. Since the shift will most likely happen, then people must learn the things to do, such as registration, filing, and paying, and the strategies to use to reduce the corporate tax bill. Indeed, the tax environment is even more complicated than we've expected, but this complexity will surely continue as different corporations continue to evolve and as governments have distinct and certain priorities that can greatly influence how their tax policies will be shaped

Jan 15, 2023
Feb 15, 2024



The UK's GDP is among the largest in the world and thus its economy thrives even in dire times.

The United Kingdom has a fiercely autonomous, advanced, and global trade economy that was at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The 1990s saw economic growth rates that were competitive with those of other major industrialized nations. After the United States, China, Japan, Germany, and India, the United Kingdom has the sixth-largest economy, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $2.83 trillion in 2019 and a population of over 66 million.  It is known for having a great overall quality of life and a somewhat diverse economy. The majority of the U.K.'s GDP is comprised of services, manufacturing, construction, and tourism; one of its unique regulations is the free asset ratio.

According to the U.K. Office for National Statistics (ONS), the services sector makes up the majority of the UK economy and contributes to more than three-quarters of GDP. United Kingdom's service includes a variety of sectors, such as finance and business services, as well as consumer-oriented sectors like retail, food and beverage, and entertainment. Agriculture contributes about 0.60% of the GDP, and manufacturing and production contribute less than 21 percent.

Table of Contents

• A Bulwark of European Economy

• Trading

• Tourism


• Health & Medical Sources

• Conclusion

A Bulwark of European Economy

The United Kingdom, notably London, has long been a center for finance. The banking, insurance, London Stock Exchange, shipping, and commodity markets all underwent substantial changes as a result of the sector's extensive restructuring and deregulation in the 1980s and 1990s. Over time, certain clearly defined boundaries between financial institutions have blurred. Around the turn of the century, the financial services industry employed over a million people and accounted for around one-twelfth of the GDP. While the financial services industry has seen significant expansion in certain medium-sized cities, notably Leeds and Edinburgh, London has maintained its position as the industry leader and has grown in both size and effect as a hub for international financial operations.


Trading in foreign exchange and securities has increased along with capital movements. Engineering, food, drinks (including alcoholic beverages), and tobacco, chemicals, paper, printing, and publishing, metals and minerals, textiles, apparel, footwear, and leather, are the most significant industrial industries in terms of their proportionate contribution to the GDP. Chemicals and electrical engineering have seen the fastest growth. The chemical industry has seen the biggest increases in pharmaceuticals and specialty goods. Within the engineering industry, electronics products have seen the quickest growth, followed by electrical and instrument engineering, transport engineering, which includes motor vehicles, and aerospace products.


Another significant source of revenue for the UK is tourism. According to the ONS, foreign nationals spent £28.4 billion, or $35.9 billion, on travel and tourism in the UK in 2019. In June 2019, which is the busiest month for travel, there were 9% more visitors than the previous year. According to Visit Britain, foreign tourists spent £2.34 billion, up 13% from the prior year.


Brexit, which stands for "British exit," the U.K.'s decision to leave the European Union (EU), became official on January 31, 2020. Since the vote, a wide range of governmental and nongovernmental organizations have predicted that the uncertainty surrounding the ongoing Brexit negotiations has had a negative impact on the U.K. economy. However, this could represent a better opportunity for the nation.

A 100-page report titled "The Benefits of Brexit" was released by the UK government to commemorate two years since the country's withdrawal from the EU. This lays out a range of benefits in many areas of spending, policy, and regulation in an enthusiastic, upbeat manner. A few days later, Jacob Rees-Mogg was named to the Cabinet as the Brexit Opportunities Minister to oversee this initiative.

Brexit has changed astonishingly little in many aspects of health and care, despite the fact that the UK's health industry has already felt the effects of trade and migration. This is because there isn't a clear, widely accepted strategy for life after the single market. The UK has stagnated in a number of areas as the EU advances.

Each of the health-related "benefits" can be broken down to reveal a recurring pattern. Many of these are either places where the UK has a real chance of doing something new and different or where the UK must make a crucial decision between going it alone and attempting to stay close to larger markets.

The document's first section emphasizes the UK's capacity to "manage its own money" and avoid making contributions to the EU. Following that is a bullet point that states that healthcare spending will increase by £57 billion in 2024–2025 compared to the year of the EU referendum.

The report avoids explicitly stating any sort of causal relationship. The Office for Budget Responsibility, which oversees public finances for the UK government, predicts that the net result of Brexit will be less rather than more money available due to a slowdown in economic growth.

Instead, the UK is funding the entire recovery effort through its own accounts. It is using this to invest in health in a way that is somewhat similar to what we see in the EU. The NHS is receiving additional funding to reduce waiting lists, and thanks to a spending review based on higher borrowing, its capital budget is expected to increase to its highest level in many years. This, however, has been packaged with a strong emphasis on new hospital building investment and meeting targets rather than investing in new care models or pandemic preparedness. In addition, rather than using the EU's seven-year timeframe, the UK has restricted its spending horizons to its typical spending review period. This doesn't seem to be a completely new direction at all.

Health & Medical Sources

Regarding medications, the new minister has said that "we can use our freedom to approve life-saving drugs faster and at better prices than ever before." The recent rapid approval of vaccines and new methods combining the approval of medicines with value-for-money checks have all been done in accordance with retained EU law, indicating a lack of concrete plans. According to reports, a strategy of general alignment and fast tracks for specific innovative projects has been proposed. The logic is sound, but the details will be challenging, just like with medical devices.

Despite the fact that many international processes are still in their very early stages, the document's sections on trade once again emphasize a high level of general ambition. There is a lot of discussion about diplomatic and trade promotion initiatives that are independent of Brexit.


The probability of the UK joining the Pacific Trade bloc CPTPP is a major topic of discussion. As we have noted, while this is advantageous for industries subject to tariffs, it is typically not the case for goods related to health. The agreement could reduce the UK's latitude in food and drink regulation and introduce Investor-State Dispute Settlement systems, which are sometimes linked to legal action against public health measures by large corporations.

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